Aflatoxicosis in poultry: A review. Article (PDF Available) · September with Reads. Cite this publication. Ansuman Mohapatra at. Aflatoxins (AF) are a class of mycotoxins, produced by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus (flavus and parasiticus) and Penicillium puberulum, that are often. Abstract. Poultry has commonly been considered highly susceptible to aflatoxins. However, among domestic fowl there is wide variability in specific species sen.
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Ochratoxicosis Ochratoxin type mycotoxin which is most commonly found in the field is ochratoxin A OTAwhich has a primary target organ on the kidneys as it is known to be nephrotoxic Pfohl-Leszkowic and Manderville, In case of poultry, synergistic effects were falatoxicosis described in instances where aflatoxins were involved, with the same for ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and fumonisin B1. The effects of mycotoxins in poultry are very complex and varies greatly according to their mechanism of toxicity and primary target organs.
Poultry has commonly been considered highly susceptible aflatoxicosus aflatoxins.
The Common Clinical Signs and Pathological Lesions of Mycotoxicoses in Poultry
Mycotoxins can inhibit the absorption of vital nutrients for maintaining health condition, growth, productivity, and reproductive, include amino acids, lipid soluble poultfy vitamin A, D, E, and Kand minerals, especially Ca, P Devegowda and Murthy, Hormesis has been noted in regards to changes in body weight in numerous studies, including those performed for the US National Toxicology Program, with over 50 chemicals.
The common pathological lesions related to OTA were seen in the kidneys, which were extremely swollen and pale in color with very distended ureters due to the accumulation of urates Figure 11 ; atrophy of bursa Fabricius, thymus, and spleen; and soft or severely fragile of bones. Reproduced with permission from the Poultry Science Association from Richardson et al. Since zearalenone is known to be primarily an estrogenic mycotoxin, this toxin appears to bind to estrogenic receptors and results in hormonal changes.
When mycotoxins are present simultaneously in poulry, they may have synergistic or additive effects. Mycotoxins are chemical compounds of low molecular weight and aflatoxicosid immunogenic capacity.
Sign In or Create an Account. Protein and glucosides, as an example, can be bound to mycotoxins by growing plants in the field to protect themselves from foreign compounds or by microorganisms which may change the mycotoxin structure during storage. Increased susceptibility to bruising and heat stress. Poultry feed production and cost are major issues faced by poultry industries in many countries of the world.
The Common Clinical Signs and Pathological Lesions of Mycotoxicoses in Poultry –
More information Accept cookies. Veterinary advice should be sought from your local veterinarian before applying any treatment or vaccine.
The most consistent findings in chickens suffer from aflatoxicosis was immune suppressive effects, include more susceptible to diseases, decreased responds to vaccination and antibiotic treatment, and decreased resistance to environment stress.
Adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on skeletal muscle development in broiler chickens. They resist high temperatures, remain stable during storage and during feed processing conditions Bullerman and Bianchini, The above-cited studies provide evidence for a low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition response in aflatoxins in chickens; however, the most relevant evidence for the hormetic response of dietary aflatoxins on body weight in chickens comes from the study of Richardson et al.
Figure 1 shows plots of the data published in the above cited articles Huff, ; Huff et al. They may have systemic or local effects, specific or often non-specific target organ. In many cases of aflatoxicosis there was an increase in leg problems, leg weakness, reduced bone strength, short shank, and leg deformity. Chronic toxicity in those birds is characterized by loss of weight, decline in feed efficiency, drop in egg production and increased susceptibility to infections.
Afaltoxin B1, which is known to be a hepatotoxin and ochratoxin A, a nephrotoxin, acted synergistically when fed simultaneously to broiler chicks Huff et al. Other lesions commonly found were hemorrhages on the intestinal mucosa, pale or yellow discoloration of the bone marrow, dermal necrosis, vesicular lesions on the feet and legs, and enlargement of costo-chondral joints related to rachitic rosary.
In broilers, enlargement of comb and wattles Figure 17prolapsus of cloaca Figure 18 were observed. Comparative toxicological studies in avian species have shown that ducklings and turkey poults aflatoicosis the most sensitive species to aflatoxins and quails show intermediate sensitivity, whereas chickens are the most resistant Leeson et al.
Storage fungi are those, which require lower water activity, thus being more prominent after harvest and during storage, such as Aspergillus sp.
In parent stocks, there was a decrease in hatchability and poor progeny performance. The hormetic response of aflatoxins in body aflatoxivosis in chickens has not been observed in other commercial poultry species such as ducks and turkeys.
Initial growth of fungi in grains can form sufficient moisture from metabolism to allow for further growth and mycotoxin formation. The only proven way to determine, if grains contain mycotoxins or not, is to test for them in the laboratory. The objective of the present article is to summarize and analyze the scientific evidence that indicates that the body weight data in chickens Gallus gallus exposed to dietary aflatoxins fit into the hormesis dose-response paradigm and to evaluate the possible implications of this phenomenon.
Trichothecenes mycotoxins affect actively dividing cells, such as those lining the gastrointestinal tracts, skin, lymphoid and erythroid cells. Aflatoxin is known to have a hepatotoxic effect in chickens Dalvi,Espada et al. Hormesis represents a strategy for the animal to optimize resource allocation and may occur through 2 different mechanisms of action: In chronic aflatoxicosis, the liver was small, firm, and rounded Figure 2. Field observations have suggested that the most common mycotoxins found in poultry operations in Indonesia, include aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone, which all can reduce performance and increase disease incidence in chicken farm operations.
Such observations were then generalized to other toxic agents and animal models, suggesting that low doses of stressor agents induce adaptive poultrg as reflected in accelerated growth rates.