recieved any formal level ranking, have been granted certificates which recognizes their capacities in regards to the application of a certain set of techniques. Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu originally called Daitō-ryū Jujutsu is a Japanese martial art that first . Modern Japanese jujutsu and aikido both originated in aikijujutsu, which Like other forms of jujutsu, it emphasizes throwing techniques and joint. Thus, beyond the rather basic level covered by the first Hiden Mokuroku scroll, which includes over techniques, there are relatively few.
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A special thanks to Guillaume for sharing his expertise and work with the Aikido Journal community. However, it shares with those the same secrecy when it comes to its technical catalog. Regardless of the specifics of its inception, the wider diffusion of Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu only began rather recently, when in the late 19th century, Takeda Sokaku started to teach seminars across Japan.
In spite of this effort, the nature of the technical progression in Daito-ryu, and the considerable time necessary to master its arcane make it so that only few practitioners are ever exposed to its deep teachings.
Thus, beyond the rather basic level covered by the first Hiden Mokuroku scroll, which includes over techniques, there are relatively few documents that describe the higher level material. One of those rare documents was historically held by the Takumakaia Daito-ryu organization formed by the students of Hisa Takuma and Nakatsu Heizaburo [ read more about Nakatsu Heizaburo here ], two direct pupils of Takeda Sokaku.
What makes this record even more special is that it consists in over 1, photographs, illustrating over techniques. I would like to offer a short introduction to this exceptional document, which is still little known to most aikido practitioners, in spite of the fact that it is of particular relevance to them, as we shall see. More than 1, pictures were taken and were carefully preserved in envelopes.
Soden: The Secret Technical Manual of Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu
A few years later, between andHisa Takuma undertook the daunting task to organize these pictures in several volumes. Some explanations on how to perform the techniques were also added, most likely not directly by Hisa but based on his instructions.
An important point to keep in mind is that Takeda Sokaku awarded the Menkyo Kaiden a document that certifies that a teacher has taught the entirety of his knowledge to his student to only two people in his entire life. Hisa Takuma being one of them, this probably made him the ideal person to undertake such work. A total of techniques are recorded in the Soden, but according to Mori Hakaru, who was appointed director of the Takumakai by Hisa, there are hundreds of additional techniques aikijujusu were taught at the journal.
Some of those techniques were taught informally by Hisa to his own students, but others were not, which indicates that much might have already been lost, and it gives us an incentive to preserve and study the material contained in the Soden. Considering that Stanley was given a microfilm version of Soden by Hisa, and not fully developed pictures, the variable quality could also be due to the processing and digitization process.
This section gathers the techniques taught by Ueshiba Morihei. It is possible that Hisa could have chosen to use this name to contrast with the techniques taught by Takeda Sokaku contained in the subsequent volumes. That may be why Hisa Sensei used this name. Ueshiba Morihei used to travel to Osaka every month to teach the Asahi group, and he also used to aikijujutxu some of his students to teach in his place, including Yukawa Tsutomu, Shirata Rinjiro, Funahashi Kaoru, Shioda Gozo, and Yonekawa Shigemi.
The first five volumes of Soden therefore constitute a third essential piece of information for us aikidoists who tecgniques to understand the techniques taught by Ueshiba Morihei during this very important transition time for aikido.
The people seen demonstrating the techniques are mostly Yoshimura Yoshiteru as tori and Kawazoe Kuniyoshi as uke. Nakatsu Heizaburo is also visible as uke on some of the pictures.
The background curtain served to hide the futon that were stacked in the back. It is likely that this room also served as a dojo early on, before the practice was eventually moved to the Sonezaki Police Station in the Kita ward of Osaka.
While a lot of the techniques gathered in this section are considered to be for beginners and intermediate-level students, there is also some rather difficult material. Volume 5 contains some techniques performed against several attackers taninzudori and on those, Nakatsu Heizaburo serves as second uke. According to Hisa Takuma, taninzudori techniques were not considered to be martial techniques, but rather, devices to be used in demonstration to impress a neophyte audience.
The taninzudori are not high level techniques, they are not martial techniques, they are techniquds staged for the demonstrations. It amazes people who do not know what the real martial arts are and makes them think that the Daito-ryu is splendid.
These techniques are a form of propaganda. That said, a number of the techniques present in the subsequent volumes, containing the material taught by Sokaku, are not necessarily practical techniques per seand they might have been including as part of a technical progression rather than for the isolated efficacy. Nakatsu Heizaburo is performing the majority of the techniques here.
It is interesting to note that this is the only section in the entire Soden that has no aikijunutsu to accompany the images. Once again, Nakatsu Heizaburo is seen performing a great number of the techniques.
There was a man named Nakatsu Heizaburo who practiced with Hisa Sensei in those days. According to Takeda Tokimune Sensei he was the most skilled technically among those who practiced at the dojo and was even better than Aikojujutsu Sensei. It has to be noted that as we advance through the volumes, the number of photos available for each technique decreases. aikijuuutsu
Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu – Wikipedia
Indeed, from an average of three photos per techniques in the first volumes, some of the later techniques are only illustrated with one single shot. This is probably due to the fact that Japan was facing increasing difficulties during the war and that resources became scarce.
Technically speaking, the techniques shown here make a more substantial use of the legs, which is one of the hallmarks of the superior Daito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu techniques. Do not throw the enemy far away. If you throw far, it will be difficult to use your legs, moreover, if the enemy knows how to take ukemi, the projection will have no effect.
You should crush the enemy at your feet. The following sections are not Soden volumes per sethey consist of extra material added by Hisa. Upon closer scrutiny, none of the techniques presented in parts 10 and 11 are actually new, but interestingly, the explanations do vary from those of corresponding techniques found in Volumes 1 to 9. It contains techniques taught to law enforcement officers. Hisa introduced them as follows:. The main reason is that they have to arrest criminals without killing or injuring them.
I do not think that Judo or Kendo, as they currently exist, are sufficient for that, so I developed police tactics that allow them to stop or interrogate criminals safely without being wounded. I modeled these tactics to the secret techniques of Daito-ryu Aiki-budo techniques. After being invited to present some of these techniques to police officers, I made some of them public in the Hogi Hiden manual, and I have widely distributed it among the police.
The person demonstrating those techniques is Tokunaga Chiyoko. Still in Shin Budo, Hisa Takuma introduced those techniques as follows:.
The art of aikijujutsu | Jujutsu, Aikinojutsu and Aikijujutsu techniques
Women are not naturally as strong as men. However, it is not difficult for them to protect themselves and defeat an attacker once they have learned the martial arts. Since martial arts do not depend on physical strength, it does not matter if the attacker is stronger.
It is in this that lies the extraordinary power of the martial arts. Let me introduce Aiki Budo techniques in a usable form for female self-defense and show you how they work through photographs. It is interesting to note that at the end of this section, a number of pictures show a group of middle school girls practicing what is described as Aiki Budo. The date is unknown but it is likely that those pictures were taken at the same time as that of the Soden publication, i.
One should note that only the nine officially recognized Budo are officially allowed to be taught as part of the Japanese education system. The first person who started to modify the ancient Japanese combat techniques in order to teach them within an educational context was Kano Jigoro, the founder of Kodokan Judo. It was far from a straightforward endeavor though, and Kano had to submit several unsuccessful applications, and each time to modify further the original koryu Ju-jutsu techniques, before he could eventually get to a Judo that was deemed fit to be taught to youths.
The Soden is only a part of the techniques taught at the Asahi Journal dojo, and given that all the contemporaries of this era are no longer of this world, many techniques have simply been lost through time. Moreover, contrary to what some people think, the possession of Soden does not in any way guarantee an understanding of the techniques it contains because, as we have seen, the explanations, if any, are rather succinct.
It should also be kept in mind that the photos were taken by students who had seen them only once, Takeda Sokaku being known from never demonstrating the same techniques more than once. It is therefore possible that their execution was not perfect. Of course, the Soden was never meant to have any other function than that of a memory aid; it was certainly not thought to be a teaching tool, and Hisa himself only rarely referred to it during his own classes. In fact, the same thinking can extend to all the Daito-ryu rolls and books: Outside of the Takumakai, this is probably the only way left for many practitioners to witness those techniques.
I would like to thank Aikido Journal and Josh Gold for giving me access to those precious documents.
Guillaume Erard is a permanent resident of Japan. Guillaume is the Information Director of the International Aikido Federation and he has produced a number of popular video interviews with some of the world’s leading Aikido instructors, including several direct students of O Sensei.
Guillaume is passionate about science and education; he holds a PhD in Molecular Biology. There were many Daito Ryu techniques, that were too severe on the joints or made people fall down at unnatural angles, that caused permanent injuries or death. These Daito Ryu techniques, were weeded out of the Aikido curriculum, to avoid permanent injuries or death. If your statement was true and we follow your logic, that would imply Daito-ryu practitioners have a very short lifespan practicing the art!
I can tell you from personal experience that your statement about the danger of practicing Daito-ryu is false. My advice is to go find a Daito-ryu dojo and experience it for yourself before drawing conclusions about the past or about the art. Some of the elements of Daito-ryu were indeed removed to create Aikido but Daito-ryu itself has a pretty structured technical curriculum that is geared towards long term progression, and the techniques are therefore taught in a way so as not to cause permanent injuries or death.
By the thread here that I started trying to get to the bottom of the name usage it seems that Minoru Hirai was wrong about the history and usage on the name Aikido. Thanks Igor, yes I am aware of this discussion. I would have thought that they might have objected if his statement was completely untrue. Sorry I do not understand the logic of your first sentence at all. Moreover, I believe that some of the material in it may actually fall under Japanese copyright laws.
On a personal standpoint, I frankly would not see the point of releasing it without some detailed personal instruction and analysis to go with it. This is all the more ironic when in fact, the content has never been lost and is crystal clear to any mid-level Daito-ryu practitioner.
The bottom line, I think, is that we need more work on the tatami for any of this published material to keep its true value. There are still people who know some of it, and the Takumakai, for instance, is actually pretty welcoming to anyone who wishes to learn. The thing is that is that in terms of the techniques of Soden, it takes a darn long time.
Takumakai is a very open Daito-ryu organisation with some fantastic generous teachers with very deep skill sets. I will be blunt, you will not reverse engineer Daito-ryu Soden practice from a book no matter your background, there are too many fine details that you simply will not have without direct Daito-ryu instruction from a legitimate teacher.
Well, please keep in mind that the density of Daito-ryu dojos drops sharply when leaving Japan. While many of the prolific writers and authors on AJ have devoted their lives entirely to the study of the budo, my guess is that most of the readers are just regular people that have a wide range of responsibilities that prevent them from traveling exhaustively, just to get to the nearest Daito-ryu dojo.
For my part, there is not a single Daito-ryu dojo in my part of the country and I cannot and will not comment on the quality of instruction in other parts of the country.
But my main argument is more fundamental. What would Stanley Pranin have said about your argument? Stanley has devoted his life to publicize information about Aikido and Daito-ryu.