Managing Public Relations CL [James E. Grunig] on by James E. Grunig and Todd T. Hunt is a must-have for PR students and professionals. Get this from a library! Managing public relations. [James E Grunig; Todd Hunt]. GRUNIG & HUNT’S FOUR MODELS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS. In the book “Managing Public Relations” from James E. Grunig and Todd. Hunt.

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Practitioners do not conduct audience analysis research to guide their strategies and tactics. It is a one-way form of communication. Why do companies need public relations? In this model, accuracy is not important and organizations do not seek audience feedback or conduct audience analysis research.

Managing Public Relations

Some press releases and newsletters are created based on this model, when audiences are not necessarily targeted or researched beforehand. Here, practitioners are negotiators and use communication to ensure that all involved parties benefit, not just the organization that employs them.


Do you think the two-way symmetrical model is plausible? Still, persuasive communication is used in this model to benefit the organization more so than audiences; therefore, it is considered asymmetrical or imbalanced.

Consider this example from Dr. For example, can we represent the interests of loyal employee groups while our shareholders demand layoffs in favor of low-cost offshore suppliers? However, this book focuses on a public relations approach based particularly on writing for the janaging.

Managing Public Relations – James E. Grunig, Todd Hunt – Google Books

One example is propagandist techniques created by news media outlets in North Korea. For instance, they may argue that political lobbying is a form of public relations because lobbyists engage in communication activities and client advocacy in order to shape the attitudes of Congress Berg, What is public relations?

The two-way symmetrical model is deemed the most ethical model, one that professionals should aspire to use in their everyday tactics and strategies Simpson, William Sledzikassociate professor of journalism and mass communication at Kent State University: Discussion Point Do you think the two-way symmetrical model is plausible?


Some experts think of public relations more broadly. Skip to content Increase Font Size.

These models serve as guidelines to relatoins programs, strategies, and tactics. Furthermore, the goal is to disseminate communication based on the two-way symmetrical model presented by Grunig and Hunt The public information model moves away from the manipulative tactics used in the press agent model and presents more accurate information. However, the communication pattern is still one-way. William Sledzikassociate professor of journalism and mass communication at Kent State University:.

Finally, the relatoins symmetrical model argues that the public relations practitioner should serve as a liaison between the organization and key publics, rather than as a persuader.